Tumult n. Confusion or disorder. A loud, confused noise, esp. one caused by a large mass of people. “He quickly became aware of the violent tumult behind the trees.”
Ahura Mazda - The god of rightousness, revealed to Zoroaster when he was meditating.
Angra Mainya - The evil one; denier of truth and rival of Ahura Mazda
Gathas - Seventeen of the 72 chapters in the Yasna composed by Zoroaster.
Ahimsa - A doctrine of non-violence towards all living things.
Asceticism - The process of self-deprivation, denying ones self food, clothing, cleansing and pleasure in order to achieve a higher spiritual goal
Digambaras - The “sky-clad” sect in Jainism, which practices monastic nudity.
Karma - The law of cause and effect. For every action, there is a consequence.
Svetambaras - The “white-clad” sect in Jainism in where monks wear white clothes.
Tao - The way ; to practice the way of nature and to understand how to achieve balance between opposing forces.
Ying-yang - The sunny side and the shady side; the symbol of balance between opposing forces
Amaterasu - The sun goddess, the most reined deity in Shinto
Folk Shinto - A variety of Shinto closely aligned with the ancient practice of Shinto and focused on personal worship of local Kami.
Agnostic: A person who doubts that human kind can know the existence of a possible god and the possible existence of anything beyond life
Atheist: One who does not believe in God.
Humanist: Someone who see’s humankind as the source of all value and meaning.
Pagan: Pagan is an umbrella term to describe unpopular religions of the world, or religions that are not Abrahamic.
Religious Impulse: Impulse to believe in something greater.
Religious pluralism: Positive atttitude towards the existance of many faiths in a society.
Ritual: A prescribed religious procedure or performance.
Sacred: Connected with religion.
Secular: Concerned with or belonging to the material world.
-It comes from the Chinese term Shin Tao ( The way of the divine )
-It is interesting because it has no founder
-it seems to have originates about 500 BCE in japan
-There is some evidence of rituals
-It fits in roughly around the same time as the others-Shinto was originally a mix of nature worship and mythology
-It was polytheistic, providing a variety of answers to spiritual questions
-Shinto seemed to get a long with other religions until about 1868
-Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism started arriving in Japan
-Emperor Meiji put money in Shinto shrines
-This was the beginning of state Shinto
-Originated from ancient Persia (modern day iran)
-The cimmunity was polytheistic but a man named Zoroaster thought that this was not meeting the spiritual needs of the people
-Zoroaster went to meditate and he received a revelation
-Monotheism was the way to go, a universe ruled by one God.
-This God was Ahura Mazda
-Zoroaster was a regular man who spent the rest of his life teaching/convincing people of the existence of God
-His life is full of controversy. The historical records are un reliable and there is a debate over his birth, the story is very similar to Jesus.
-This is a religion ‘born’ out of another (Hinduism)
-It can trace its roots back to 24 Jinas in ancient east India
-These Jinas were holy teachers
-The first is believed to be a giant that lived 8 million long years ago
-The most recent and last Jina was Vardhamana Mahavira (born 599 BCE)
-Mahavira reorganized religious life
-He did believe in many aspects of hinduism but thought that some thing needed to be charged
-Mahavire dedicated his life to ahimsa
Ever since first contact that relationship between Europeans and Aboriginals have been complicated.
- There have been many positive and negative aspects.
- In 1755 the British set up the Indian Department of Canada
The British needed the support of the Aboriginal peoples to help them fight the French and the Americans (1760 through 1820)
- They were extra men, they knew how to survive and knew the land
By 1900 the role of the Aboriginals in the eyes of Canada had changed
-They were no longer needed as allies
-Their numbers had been greatly reduced
Two Indian acts had been passed just before the start of the 20th century (1876-1895)
-These encouraged the Aboriginals to adopt a more European/Christian lifestyle
-These acts helped the government manage the Aboriginal population.
-The term “status Indian” was coined during this time.
Resident schools were set up to try to make the next generation of Aboriginals more European.
-These were run by religious orders
-They were poorly managed and supervised
-Children were discouraged from using their traditional language
-There were many Lasting problems that were created because of this
There have been a few heated confrontations over land
-Oka: local businessman from the town of Oka wanted to expand a gold course over at the site of a potential Mohawk burial ground. The claim was rejected by the courts and and armed stand off lasted 2 weeks and one police officer was killed.
-Ipperwash: This was a land claim dispute that lasted over 50 years. Bands began moving back into the dispute area in 1993 and things began to get worse in 1995. A barricade was set up at Ipperwash Provincial Park. It didn’t last as long as Oka but Dudley George was shot and killed. The inquiry reported was finale released in 2007.
One definition of religion includes: “A set of beliefs, values, and principles based on the teachings of a spiritual leader.”
As humans populates areas and civilizations grew people began to wonder/ask questions about their lives:
- What is our purpose, ect.
These early religions represent a separation from the “myth-driven” belief system before them.
- A systemic philosophy
- Consistent rituals for a particular faith
- Organization and identity ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Some early religions:
- Zoroastrianism, Jainism, Taoism, Confucianism, Shinto
What is Aesthetics - Branch of philosophy dealing with such emotions as beauty
How do we Make Aesthetic judgements - Beauty comes with context, something can be beautiful in one light and feculent in another. Some beauty is instinctual , some is learned.
Aesthetic judgment -Our psychology can change our reactions. Some art makes us calm, others angry or sad.
Four theories of Aesthetics in art:
All art should have 1 or more of these principles. Though post modern artists try to push these boundaries.